IELTS Task 1 Process- Cement and Concrete Production

Below is a sample band 9 answer to a process task 1 question on concrete production.

IELTS task 1 process cement

Question– The diagrams below show the stages and equipment used in the cement-making process, and how cement is used to produce concrete for building purposes.


The diagrams illustrate the phases and apparatus to make cement and how cement is utilised in the production of concrete for construction.

The production of cement involves a 5 stage, linear process that begins with the mixing of raw materials and culminates in the packaging of new cement. Making concrete is a simpler process that involves mixing four ingredients in a concrete mixer.

Limestone and clay are crushed and the resulting powder is then mixed before being passed through a rotating heater. Once heated this mixture travels over a conveyor belt and is ground through a grinder. Now that the cement has been produced, it is packaged and transported to a building site where it can be used to make concrete.

Concrete is made up of half gravel, quarter sand, 10% water and 15% cement. All of these are added together in a cylindrical drum and rotated until concrete is yielded.

(151 words)


The first paragraph simply paraphrases the question. This is done through using synonyms.

The second paragraph gives two overview sentences. An overview gives the examiner an overall picture of what is happening. You will notice that I have mentioned:

  • How many stages there are;
  • How raw materials were used;
  • If it is linear or cyclical;
  • what happens in the beginning; and
  • what is the result.

I have split the overview into two sentences because there are two separate stages.

The third paragraph looks at cement production in much more detail than the overview. The examiner is looking for your ability to highlight the main features and sequence them effectively.

The fourth paragraph details the process of concrete production. This is a much simpler process and does not require so much sequencing. There are some percentages so it does allow us to show the examiner that we can use the language of proportions instead of just repeating all of the numbers.

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  1. naveen says

    hi chris,can i use not only but also in paraphrasing in the first sentence as .-the picture illustrates not only different stages and types of machinery needed in the manufacture of cement but also……………

  2. Sara Angeleska says

    The first illustration demonstrates how cement is being produced step by step, while the second one shows us the production of concrete.

    Both processes are man-made and linear. Cement is being produced in five stages starting with the crush of limestone and clay and ending with ground cement that is being packed. From the second graphic we can see that cement mixed with water, sand gravel produces concrete.

    Turning the limestone and clay into a powder is the first stage of cement production. After that, the powder is being mixed and heated in a special rotating heater. Then the heated material is being grinded and the final product, cement is packed.

    Cement purpose is to contribute in the production of concrete which is the mixture of four different ingredients: one quarter of sand, 15 percent of cement, small amount of water and 50 percent of small stones called gravel. All this materials are mixed together in a special concrete machine.

  3. Lemuelle Bryan says

    The diagrams illustrate the steps and tools used in the cement-making process and cement used to yield concrete for building purposes.

    The production of cement has 5 stages, it commence with the mixing of two raw materials and completing in the packaging a new cement.

    Concrete production has a simpler process by mixing the four elements (Cement, water, sand and gravel) in the concrete mixer.

    It starts with Limestone and clay is crushed together, resulting in powder is then mixed. Once Limestone and clay are collected as one, it passed through a rotating heater to heat. After being heated, travels over a conveyer belt to pound through a grinder. At this time, cement is produced and it is packed in a bag and delivered to the building site for concrete production.

    Concrete production begins, mixing the 4 elements, Cement (15%), Water (10%), Sand (25%) and Gravel (50%) into the concrete mixer until it is ready to use.

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